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Salem is a city in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. It lies on the bank of Tirumanimuttar River, a tributary of the Kaveri River.
Through archaeological remains, it is believed that Salem region was occupied during the Neolithic Period. The land was governed by Poligars and was part of the Vijayanagar, and Muslim rulers. It was captured by the British in 1797 and became part of Salem district in 1947.
The city is connected to Chennai, Cuddalore, Tiruchchirappalli, Madurai, Coimbatore, and Bengaluru by roads and railway lines. Salem has a number of Hindu temples - The Kottai Mariamman Temple, Kottai Perumal Temple, Skandhashram; Kumaragiri Hill Murugan Temple and Kariperumal Karadu Hill Temple are in the hills. The city has long been famous for its cotton and silk hand-loom weaving. It is a large-scale industrial centre, with tool workshops, electrical and chemical factories, and brass rolling mills. Salem is one of the state’s leading manufacturers of textiles, with several spinning mills and weaving facilities. There are numerous colleges affiliated with the University of Madras in the city.
The surrounding area of the region consists of a series of hills — a section of the Kaveri River valley in the west, and the Shevaroy, Kalrayan, Kollaimalai, and Pachaimalai hills — in the east. The region specializes in agricultural produce in fruit, coffee, cotton, and peanuts (groundnuts). Iron ore, bauxite, and manganese are the minerals deposits work on. The Mettur Dam on the Kaveri facilitates the development of large-scale industry in the region.